Alfred to Elizabeth II
| Wessex | Normans
| Plantagenet | Tudor
| Scottish | Stuart
| Hanover | Windsor
When did the last British King fight in
George II was the last
British King to lead his army in person, during the War of the
Austrian Succession, at the Battle of Dettingen in Bavaria, 27th
June, 1743. The last English King to die in battle was Richard
III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in Leicestershire on 22
August 1485 defeated by Henry Tudor who became Henry VII ending
the Wars of the Roses between the Houses of York and Lancaster
and starting the Tudor dynasty. The last British King to die in
battle was James IV of Scotland
killed at the Battle of Flodden Field in Northumberland on 9 September
1513 when the Scots invaded England hoping to take advantage of
Henry VIII's absence in France, but were defeated by English forces
under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey.
How far back can the British Royal Family
trace their roots? Is Queen Elizabeth II really directly descended
from Alfred the Great?
She is the 32nd great granddaughter of King
Alfred who 1,140 years ago was the first effective King of
England. He ruled from 871 to 899.
I thought that American Independence was
in 1776. Why is it quoted as 1783?
The Continental Congress of the 13 American colonies declared
independence in 1776. However, the war continued and independence
from Britain was not achieved until the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
Was George III really mad?
For most of his reign King
George III was an astute king and politician with a strong
sense of duty. Later in his reign he suffered from recurrent and
eventually permanent mental illness. This baffled medical science
at the time, although it is now generally thought that he suffered
from the inherited blood disease porphyria. He suffered his first
attack in 1788 and by 1810 was unfit to rule. In 1811 his son
George, Prince of Wales, became Regent for 9 years until his father
died in 1820.
Who would now be King or Queen if Edward
VIII had not abdicated?
Edward VIII abdicated
in 1936 less than a year after becoming King to marry Wallis Simpson.
His younger brother Bertie became King
George VI and was the father of the present Queen
Elizabeth II. He died in 1952, and Edward who had no children
died in 1972. So even if Edward had not abdicated Elizabeth would
now be Queen. She would have come to the throne in 1972 instead
Why did Edward VIII have to give up the throne
to marry a divorcee but Prince Charles is still in line to the
Royals who are divorced or marry divorcees do not lose
their position in the line of succession. Edward VIII had a number
of affairs with married women including Wallis Simpson who was
already divorced and still married to her second husband. His
parents King George V and Queen Mary did not approve and refused
to meet her. When George V died Prime Minister Baldwin made it
clear that the Government, popular opinion in the country and
the oversees Dominions (now the Commonwealth nations) did not
approve of his plans to marry Wallis. Social attitudes towards
divorce and a women looking for a third marriage were considered
scandalous at the time, and if Edward married against the advice
of his Ministers it would have caused the Government to resign
and a constitutional crisis. Edward chose to abdicate.
The 1772 Royal Marriages Act requires members of the
Royal Family to obtain permission from the Sovereign to marry.
Queen Elizabeth II gave her permission for Prince Charles to marry
Camilla, and more recently for Prince William to marry Catherine
Diana have become Queen?
If Prince Charles had become King during their marriage then
she would have been his consort with the title Queen Diana. They
divorced in 1996 and she died in a car crash in Paris on 31st
August 1997. Although popularly known as 'Princess Diana' this
was not her title - because she became a princess by marrying
Prince Charles her title was Princess Charles Philip Arthur George,
Princess of Wales, or more simply Diana, Princess of Wales.
Who is Prince Henry shown as fourth in
line to the Throne? What about Prince Harry?
Prince Harry's name is Henry
Charles Albert David. Harry is his nickname
Is Kate Middleton the first commoner
to marry an heir to the throne?
The Queen's husband Prince Philip is a direct descendant
of Queen Victoria, Diana's family had titled ancestry and Camilla
is the granddaughter of a baron. Prince William's wife Catherine
(Kate) nee Middleton comes from a middle class background
with no aristocratic or titled connections. She is not however
the first commoner to marry a future king. Notably Anne Hyde first
wife of King James II, and Elizabeth Woodville, who married King
Edward IV in 1464 and became a key figure in the Wars of the Roses
were commoners with no direct connections to nobility.
Edward VIII married Wallis Simpson but had already
abdicated as King.
Why are William and Harry referred to
as Wales when their name is Windsor?
Members of the Royal Family who are titled His (or Her) Royal
Highness do not traditionally need or use a surname. Windsor is
the name of the Royal House to which they belong. Their titles
are HRH Prince William of Wales
and HRH Prince Henry of Wales.
During their tours of duty with the Armed Forces, the Princes
chose to show their surname as Wales. Members of the royal family
who are not HRH (for example Prince
Edward's children Louise and James) use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor.
Why are Prince Andrew's daughters princesses
when Prince Edward's daughter is not? Also why do Princess Anne's
children Peter and Zara not have titles?
You become a prince by being the son of a prince, or princess
by being the daughter of a prince or by marrying a prince. So
Prince Andrew's daughters are Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie.
The Queen's daughter Princess Anne has the title Princess Royal,
but her children Peter and Zara do not have titles. It is traditional
that they would have been made a Duke and Duchess or Earl and
Countess, but it is understood that Princess Anne asked the Queen
not to give her children titles so they could live as private
individuals. Prince Edward declined to be made a Duke on his marriage
and became Earl of Wessex, so that his wife Sophie is Countess
of Wessex. The Royal Family is descended directly from the Anglo-Saxon
Kings of Wessex. On their marriage is was anounced that their
children would not be titled Prince and Princess but as the children
of an Earl, so they are Lady Louise and James Viscount Severn.
Why are Roman Catholics excluded from
the Line of Succession to the British throne?
In 1534 Henry VIII broke
with the Church of Rome over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon
and made himself Head of the Church of England. Every King or
Queen since Elizabeth 1 has held the title 'Supreme Governor of
the Church of England' and 'Defender of the Faith'. As it is a
Protestant Church all those in the Royal line of succession and
their spouses have to be Protestants. The Act of Settlement (1701)
laid down that only Protestant heirs of Princess Sophia, granddaughter
of James I, may succeed to the British throne. Neither Catholics,
nor those who marry a Catholic, nor those born out of wedlock,
may remain in the line of succession. Prince Charles has let it
be known that when he becomes King he will take the title 'Defender
of Faith' instead of' 'Defender of the Faith' to include faiths
other than the established Church of England.
In Aprl 2013 the Succession
to the Crown Bill 2013 changed the succession laws so that
a person is not disqualified from succeeding to the Crown as a
result of marrying a Roman Catholic . They will however not be
allowed to become a Roman Catholic as the British Monarch is head
of the Protestant Church of England.
Why are younger brothers higher in the line
of succession than their older sisters?
The line of succession to the British throne used until
recently the system of male primogeniture whereby younger sons
have precedence over their older sisters. So Prince Andrew and
Prince Edward are above their older sister Princess Anne in line
of succession, and Prince Edward's son James is above his sister
Louise. While male precedence may now be considered to be out
of line with current 'equal-rights' thinking and is proposed to
be changed, it has not prevented some of the most successful and
longest reigning British monarchs from being queens including
Queen Elizabeth I, Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II.
It does allow the succession to inherit through the
female line, so the children of daughters can succeed to the throne
as is the case with the current Queen. The French and German monarchies
used a system of Salic law whereby females had no right to inherit
and could not pass it to their offspring. The last time that the
British throne passed to a son in precedence to a first born daughter
was when Queen Victoria's son Edward VII inherited the throne
over his older sister Princess Victoria. Had she become queen
she would have been Queen Victoria II and her son Kaiser Wilhelm
II would have also been King William V and ruled over a huge combined
British and German Empire. This could have significantly changed
20th century European history with the 1st World War unlikely
to have happened as it did but replaced with other nationalist,
republican and fascist struggles leading possibly to the downfall
of both monarchies and a changed map of Europe.
In Aprl 2013 the Succession
to the Crown Bill 2013 changed the succession laws so that
a person is able to marry a Roman Catholic and remain in the line
of successsion, and the right of male primogeniture no longer
applies to children born after 28 October 2011. It meant that
if the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's first child had been a
girl and their second a boy, male primogenture would no longer
have applied and he would not have had precedence over his older
sister. However, their first child born on 22 July 2013 was a
boy Prince George so it did not apply. Their second child Princess
Charlotte will not lose her place even if she has a younger brother.
This current line of succession is shown at Line
Who was the oldest person to become king
or queen? Will Prince Charles be the oldest?
King William IV was 64
years old when he became king in 1830 and succeeded his elder
brother George IV. Prince Charles
the current heir to the throne became 66 on 14th November 2014
and is now the longest waiting heir to the throne. Edward
VII became king after the death of his mother Queen Victoria
in 1901 when he was 59 years and 2 months old. Kings
& Queens by age of accession to the throne.
Could the Queen choose to pass the throne
directly to Prince William?
The Queen cannot choose. Prince
Charles as her eldest son and Prince of Wales is next in line
to the throne and will become King as long as he is living when
the Queen dies or should she abdicate. It would require a change
to British constitutional law for this not to happen.
Will Charles become King George VII?
Charles can choose to
rule as King Charles III or take another name. Kings often take
a different regnal (ruling) name from their first given name.
Charles' grandfather George VI
was Prince Albert ("Bertie") before he became king,
and his great great grandfather Edward
VII was also Prince Albert. King Charles
I was beheaded in 1649 after the English Civil War, and Charles
II was popularly known as the 'merrie' monarch as he had so
many mistresses. Charles
Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) the Stuart pretender
to the throne styled himself Charles III before he was defeated
at Culloden in 1746. It is thought possible that Prince Charles
may choose to become King George VII after his grandfather.
Will Camilla become Queen?
Prince Charles and
Camilla were married on 9th April 2005. She was given the
title Duchess of Cornwall because of sensitivity following the
death of Diana. As the wife of the Prince of Wales her title should
be Princess of Wales and, although before the marriage it was
announced that she would take the title Princess consort, she
is expected to become Queen consort when Charles becomes King.
Is there a royal connection between Camilla's
family and the royal family?
In 1889 Camilla's great-grandmother
Alice Keppel was the mistress of Edward
VII when he was Prince of Wales. Edward VII was the great-great-grandfather
of Prince Charles the current Prince of Wales.
Why is the Queen's husband Prince Philip
not King Philip?
The husband of a queen is known as a Prince consort and does
not become King. Queen Victoria's husband was Prince Albert, and
Queen Elizabeth's husband is Prince
Philip The Duke of Edinburgh. The wife of a king is a Queen
consort and does take the title Queen although she does not rule
as the monarch. The only exceptions were William III and Mary
II who ruled jointly from 1689 until Mary's death in 1694.
Were Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip
related before their marriage?
The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh are both great great grandchildren
of Queen Victoria. The Queen
is a direct descendant of Queen Victoria’s eldest son King
Edward VII and the Duke of Edinburgh is a direct descendant of
Queen Victoria’s daughter Princess Alice.
What relation is Queen Elizabeth II to King
George III ?
George III was her 3rd great grandfather. If you you follow the
line of succession on her grandfather's side - George VI (father),
George V (grandfather), Edward VII (great grandfather), Victoria
(2nd great grandmother) , Edward Duke of Kent (3rd great grandfather),
George III (4th great grandfather) - then he was her 4th great
grandfather. However her grandmother Queen Mary of Teck was also
descended from George III - she and George V were 2nd cousins
once removed. If you follow Queen Elizabeth's line through her
grandmother - George VI (father), Queen Mary (grandmother), Mary
Adelaide (great grandmother), Adolphus of Hanover (2nd great grandfather),
George III (3rd great-grandfather) - he is more closely related
as her 3rd great grandfather. You can see this on the Royal
How rich is Queen Elizabeth?
Her estimated personal fortune is around £350 million (US $525M).
The Duchy of Lancaster estate, a portfolio of land, property and
assets, is held in trust for the monarch and worth around £348
million. She also owns properties privately that have never been
valued, including Sandringham House, Balmoral Castle reputedly
worth £160 million and the Castle of Mey. Her investment portfolio
in blue-chip British companies is around £110 million, her
personal art collection is worth at least £2 million, and she
owns personal jewellery and a large stamp collection built up
by her grandfather George V.
Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, the Crown Jewels
and the Royal Art Collection are held in trust for the nation.
The Crown Estate, which manages on behalf of the
monarch the property and land owned by the Crown, including properties
in Regent Street and St James in London, offshore wind farms around
Britain's coast and rural estates in Scotland, is worth around
£11 billion and generates £285 million (2014/15) income
a year. This income is given to the national Treasury for use
in public finances, in return for a grant (£38 million in
2012) for the cost of running the monarchy. This arrangement dated
from 1760 when George III gave up the right to the income from
the Crown's estates in return for a Civil List paid to members
of the Royal Family.
In 2013 this changed to a Sovereign Support Grant
based on 15% of the income from the Crown Estate. This means that
for the year from April 2016 the nation will keep £242.2
million of the Crown Estates income, and the monarchy will receive
£42.7 miilion towards the cost of the Royal household, their
travel, attending formal functions and repairs to buildings including
Kensington Palace which is the home of Prince William, the Duchess
of Cambridge and their children Prince George and Princess Charlotte.
Does the Queen pay taxes?
Yes, in 1992 The Queen offered to pay income tax and capital
gains tax on a voluntary basis. Since 1993, her personal income
has been taxable as for any other UK taxpayer.
Does the Queen rule or does Parliament?
The British Monarchy is a constitutional monarchy in which
the King or Queen reigns as Head of State but with limits to their
power, and the day-to-day government is carried out by Parliament.
The political party with the most elected seats in the House of
Commons elects a Prime Minister who is invited by the monarch
to form a government. A new Parliament is opened by the monarch
in an official ceremony, and the Prime Minister during his or
her term in office regularly meets with the King or Queen to discuss
political matters and events.
How many British Prime Ministers and US
Presidents have there been during the Queen's reign?
Queen Elizabeth II
has worked with 13 different Prime Ministers since she became
Queen: Winston Churchill (1951-55), Anthony Eden (1955-59), Harold
Macmillan (1959-63), Alec Douglas-Home (1963-64), Harold Wilson
(1964-70 & 1974-76), Edward Heath (1970-74), James Callaghan
(1976-79), Margaret Thatcher (1979-90), John Major (1990-97),
Tony Blair (1997-2007), Gordon Brown (2007-2010), David Cameron
(2010-2016) and Theresa May (2016 - present).
There have been 12 US Presidents during her reign:
Harry Truman (1945-1953), Dwight Eisenhower (1953-61), John Kennedy
(1961-63), Lyndon Johnson (1963-69), Richard Nixon (1969-74),
Gerald Ford, (1974-77), James Carter (1977-81), Ronald Reagan
(1981-89), George Bush (1989-93), William Clinton (1993-2001),
George W Bush (2001-09), Barack Obama, (2009-present).
There have been 7 Archbishops of Canterbury and 7
Popes during her reign.
Which King or Queen reigned for the longest
The longest reigning British monarch is Queen Elizabeth II
who including today has reigned for
which is the longest reign in over 1,200 years of British History.
On 10th September 2015 she surpassed her great great grandmother
Queen Victoria who reigned
for 63 years, 7 months and 2 days from 1837-1901. See Kings
and Queens by length of reign.
Which King or Queen reigned for the shortest
Edward VI named his cousin Lady
Jane Grey as his successor and she was proclaimed queen on
July 10, 1553 by her father-in-law the Duke of Northumberland.
She was 16 years old. Meanwhile Edward's half sister Mary
eldest daughter of Henry VIII was also proclaimed queen. The situation
was resolved 9 days later on July 19 1553 when Mary arrived in
London and was proclaimed as the rightful queen. Mary was crowned
Queen on Oct 1, 1553. Lady Jane Grey was executed on February
12, 1554. Another who was not crowned was Edward
V. His father Edward IV died on April 9, 1483, but he was
usurped by his uncle Richard III
who proclaimed himself king 2 months later on June 26 and crowned
on July 6, 1483. The date that Edward died is unknown - he was
presumed murdered with his brother in the Tower of London at sometime
in September that year. The shortest reigning crowned king was
Edmund II for 7 months from 25 April - 30 November 1016. Kings
and Queens by length of reign.
Which King had the most illegitimate children?
Henry I is purported to
have had 20-25 illegitimate children by at least six women, but
few details are known. Charles
II famously fathered numerous illegitimate children, of whom
he acknowledged fourteen. His mistresses included Lucy Walter
(2 children), Moll Davis (1) , Nell Gwyne (2), Louise de Keroualle
(1), Barbara Villiers (6), Elizabeth Killigrew (1), Catherine
Pegg (1), Frances Stuart (became the face of Britannia on coins),
and at least five others. William
IV had 10 illegitimate children born between 1794 and 1807
by his mistress actress Dorothea Bland (known as Mrs Jordan).
Is David Cameron descended from royalty? How
close would he be in line to the throne?
David Cameron, the current British Prime Minister, is the great,
great, great grandson of Elizabeth Fitzclarence (Jan 17, 1801
- Jan 16, 1856) who was an illegitimate daughter of William
IV and his mistress Irish actress Dorothea Bland who was known
by her stage name as 'Mrs Jordan'. They lived together for 20
years when he was Duke of Clarence and had 5 sons and 5 daughters.
When he became heir to the throne William married Adelaide of
Saxe-Meiningen but they had no surviving children so when he died
having no legitimate children his niece Victoria became Queen.
David Cameron is the 5th cousin, twice removed of
Queen Elizabeth II, but illegitimate lines have no claim to the
throne. The Royal Marriage act of 1772, instigated by William
IV's father George III, requires members of the royal family to
obtain permission from the monarch to marry. So William and Dorothea
would have had to get permission from his brother George IV to
marry and it would also have required ratification by Parliament.
She was Catholic and would have had to renounce her Catholic faith
for William to remain in the line of succession to the throne.
In the very unlikely event that they had been allowed to marry
and had done so before their children were born then their eldest
son George Augustus would have had a claim to the throne. His
great grandson Geoffrey Fitzclarence, 5th Earl of Munster, was
a Conservative politician in Winston Churchill's government. David
Cameron's line through their 3rd daughter Elizabeth would have
had only a very remote claim.
How big was Henry VIII?
When Henry VIII came to the
throne in April 1509 he was 17 years old, 6ft 2in tall, and had
pale skin, blue eyes and auburn hair. He was physically active
and enjoyed sport, hunting and jousting. A Venetian visitor described
him as 'His Majesty is the handsomest potentate I ever set eyes
on, a vigorous player of tennis, rider of horses, and skilled
wrestler'. However he became fatter with age and gluttony. His
suits of armour show that in 1512 he had a 32 inch waist , which
increased to 35 inch by 1520s, and then grew to an enormous 54
inch by 1545. He suffered increasingly of ill health, swelling
of the joints and an ulcerated leg claimed to have been caused
by a jousting accident. His pain added to his mood swings and
unpredictable temper. In 1544 his portrait shows him puffy and
bloated. By 1546 he could hardly walk and was carried around on
a wooden chair . He had to be winched on to his horse and his
armour cut open to accommodate his swollen legs. He is estimated
to have weighed 25 stone (350 lbs or 158kg) when he died in January
Why was Queen Mary I known as Bloody Mary?
Queen Mary's father Henry
VIII split with Rome over his divorce from her mother Catherine
of Aragon and made himself head of the Protestant Church of England.
When she became queen, Mary sought to re-establish Roman Catholicism
as the official religion and carried out persecution of Protestant
clergy and followers. Over 200 died including Thomas Cranmer and
several bishops who were burnt at the stake between 1555 and Mary's
death in 1558. She was succeeded by her half sister Elizabeth
I, daughter of Ann Boleyn, who re-established Protestantism
as the official Church of England.
How many British monarchs have been killed
while they were king or queen?
- King Edmund I was killed
in 946 during a feast at Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire, by an
- King Edward The Martyr
was murdered by members of Aethelred's household at Corfe Castle
- King Edmund II Ironside was
assassinated in London in 1016
- King Harold II was killed
by an arrow in his eye at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
- King William I The Conqueror
suffered a fatal internal injury in 1087 after being thrown against
the pommel of his saddle near Nantes in France.
- King William II Rufus was
killed in 1100 with an arrow while hunting in the New Forest.
Supposedly an accident, it has been suggested that he was shot
deliberately on the instructions of his brother Henry.
- Richard I The Lion Heart
was killed by a crossbow bolt while besieging Châlus-Chabrol
in France in 1199.
- Edward II was murdered in
1327 at Berkeley Castle on the orders of his wife, Isabella
- Richard II was starved to
death in 1400 while imprisioned in Pontefract castle. He had been
forced to abdicate in 1399 by his cousin Henry IV Bolingbroke.
- Henry VI was murdered in the
Tower of London in 1471 during the 'Wars of the Roses' between
the Lancastrians and Yorkists.
- Edward V and his younger
brother were imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1483 and never
seen again. Their fate remains a mystery but the two princes are
believed to have been murdered on orders from their uncle Richard
- Richard III was killed in
1485 at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
- Henry VIII executed two of
his six wives, Anne Boleyn
in 1536 and Catherine
Howard in 1542.
- Charles I was executed by
Parliament in 1649 following the Civil War.
- Scottish Kings killed include James
II at Roxburgh in 1460 when a cannon exploded, James
III in battle near Stirling in 1488 by supporters of his son,
James IV by Henry VIII's
forces at Flodden in 1513, and Mary
Queen of Scots executed in 1587 on orders from her cousin
Why was Edward I not Edward IV as he followed Edward the
Elder, Edward the Martyr & Edward the Confessor?
The practice of using Roman numerals to distinguish kings
and queens started only after there had been several with the
same name, and particularly when there was a succession of father,
son, grandson like Edward I, Edward II, and Edward III. Before
then it was common for chroniclers and historians to use sobriquets
such as Edward the Elder, Edward the Martyr, Edward the Confessor,
Edmund Ironside, Aethelred the Unready, Alfred the Great, Harold
Harefoot etc before this became impractical.
It would be interesting to consider how the present
Queen would be known if she were to be referred to in this way.
'Elizabeth the Great', 'Elizabeth the Steadfast
', 'Elizabeth the Dutiful', have been suggested, as well
as 'Elizabeth the Diplomat' for her work and visits to
so many countries, 'Elizabeth the Survivor' referring
to her reign as the longest in British history,'Elizabeth
the Wise', 'Elizabeth the Magnificent', 'Elizabeth
the Supreme', 'Elizabeth the Faithful' for her
untiring service over 60 years to her people and the Commonweatlh,
'Elizabeth the Enduring' , 'Elizabeth the Correct'
, 'Elizabeth,the Benevolent', 'Elizabeth,the Tolerant',
'Elizabeth the Stalwart' and 'Elizabeth the Beloved'.
If you have a suggestion please contact
What about King Arthur of the knights
of the round table and Camelot?
King Arthur is a legend and folklore of a Celtic king who
fought to defend Britain from Saxon invaders in the 6th century.
There is no historical evidence that he existed. Interestingly,
Henry VII sought to revive the legend naming his eldest son Arthur.
Unfortunately Prince Arthur
died in 1502 aged 15 before he became King. His younger brother
Henry followed his father instead and became Henry
Why was there no king or queen between
1649 and 1660?
The English Civil War (1642-1649) was fought between the
royalist forces loyal to King
Charles I and the parliamentarians led by Oliver Cromwell.
The Royalist were defeated at the Battle of Naseby in 1645 and
following attempts to organize a Scottish invasion, Charles was
caught and executed on January 30, 1649. It was the first time
a British monarch had ever been publicly executed in recorded
history. After the execution of the King, a republic was declared
known as the Commonwealth of England (1649-1653) and then the
Protectorate (1653-1658) with rule by parliament under Cromwell.
Following his death in 1658, Cromwell was succeeded briefly by
his son Richard before the monarchy was restored and Charles
II became king in 1660.
What is the Stone of Destiny?
The Stone of Destiny is a symbolic stone that was used in
the crowning of Kings of Scotland at the Palace of Scone in Perthshire,
Scotland. It is a block of sandstone which measures approximately
26 inches long x 16 wide x 11 high which rested beneath the throne.
According to legend it was brought to Scotland by Fergus Mor from
Ireland, where it had reached by way of Spain and Egypt from the
Holy Land. It was used in the crowning of kings from
Kenneth MacAlpin in 841 to John
Balliol in 1292. In 1296 King
Edward I of England took the stone to London where it was
kept in Westminster Abbey for use in coronations. In 1950 a group
of students stole the stone and took it back to Scotland in two
pieces which were repaired by a Glasgow stone mason. They left
it at Arbroath Abbey from where it was returned to Westminster
Abbey. In 1996 the British Government decided in response to calls
by Scottish nationalists to return it to Scotland. It arrived
back on St Andrews Day 30 November 1996, almost exactly 700 years
after it had been removed by Edward, and is now in Edinburgh Castle.
When did Wales become part of the United
Wales became incorporated into England under the Statute
of Rhuddlan in 1284, after it had been annexed by Edward
I of England in 1282. Edward dubbed his eldest son Edward
Prince of Wales, since which time the eldest son of each English
monarch has borne the same title. In the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542,
Wales became legally part of the Kingdom of England, and subsequently
part of the United Kingdom.
When did Scotland become part of the United
The Crowns of England and Scotland were united in 1603 when
James VI of King Scotland became
James I King of England. In October 1604, one year later , he
decreed that the Royal Title would use the term Great Brittaine
to refer to the "one Imperiall Crowne" made up of England
and Scotland. However despite James' wishes political union between
Scotland and England did not take place until 1707 in the reign
of Queen Anne. See union of the United Kingdom.
When did Ireland become part of the United
Ireland became part of the United Kingdom in 1800 when the
Act of Union with Ireland was passed by both the Irish and British
Why is Northern Ireland part of the United
Kingdom when Southern Ireland is a different country?
Northern Ireland, predominantly Protestant, and Southern
Ireland, Catholic, split in 1920 with 6 of the 9 counties of Ulster
remaining within the United Kingdom, and the remaining 26 counties
being given home rule under the Government of Ireland Act. In
1922 the Southern counties became the Irish Free State and then
since 1949 the Republic of Ireland.
Alfred to Elizabeth II
| Wessex | Normans
| Plantagenet | Tudor
| Scottish | Stuart
| Hanover | Windsor